Why do you backcross mice? The way to mitigate the impact of genetic drift on mutant and transgenic mouse strains is to refresh the genetic background of your strains every 5-10 generations by backcrossing to the inbred control strain.
How do you get a congenic mouse?
Generating congenic strains
Congenic strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the descendants 5–10 generations with one of the original strains, known as the recipient strain.
What is a congenic mouse strain?
Glossary Term. Congenic Strain. MGI Glossary. Definition. An inbred strain of mouse that contains a small genetic region (ideally a single gene) from another strain, but which is otherwise identical to the original inbred strain.
What is a transgenic mouse model?
Transgenic mice are mouse models that have had their genomes altered for the purpose of studying gene functions. At Charles River, we help hundreds of global customers by delivering study-ready, transgenic mice to meet their research needs.
What is backcross breeding?
Backcross breeding enables breeders to transfer a desired trait such as a transgene from one variety (donor parent, DP) into the favored genetic background of another (recurrent parent, RP). If the trait of interest is produced by a dominant gene, this process involves four rounds of backcrossing within seven seasons.
Related guide for Why Do You Backcross Mice?
How do you maintain a mouse colony?
What is the difference between syngeneic and congenic?
is that syngeneic is (genetics) genetically identical, or sufficiently identical and immunologically compatible as to allow for transplantation while congenic is (genetics) (of different strains of an organism ) that are genetically identical except for a variation in a limited genetic region or locus.
What is congenic marker?
Marker assisted breeding or marker assisted selection breeding, also known as "speed congenics" permits the production of congenic strains equivalent to 10 backcross generations in as few as five generations (Markel et al., 1997; Wakeland et al., 1997).
What are recombinant strains?
A recombinant inbred strain (or recombinant inbred line) is an organism with chromosomes that incorporate an essentially permanent set of recombination events between chromosomes inherited from two or more inbred strains.
What is Consomic?
Consomic (or Chromosome Substitution Strains) are derived by backcrossing to a parental inbred strain for at least ten generations while selecting for retention of a specific whole chromosome from the donor strain.
What CD45 1?
Description. CD45. 1 is an alloantigen of CD45, expressed by Ly5. 1 bearing mouse strains (e.g., RIII, SJL/J, STS/A, DA). CD45, a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, is a 180-240 kD glycoprotein expressed on all hematopoietic cells except mature erythrocytes and platelets.
What is the designation for offspring from the first backcross to generate a congenic strain?
In the derivation of any new congenic strain, the first cross is always an outcross, and the offspring are considered members of the F1 generation. The second cross is always a backcross, and the offspring are considered members of the N2 generation.
How are transgenic mice?
Typically, transgenic mice are generated by microinjecting the transgenic construct into a fertilized egg (oocyte or zygote). Another method to generate transgenic mice is to transfect a transgenic construct into mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and then inject these cells into mouse blastocysts.
How transgenic mice are possible?
Transgenic mice are made by using glass micropipettes to inject a solution that contains DNA from a chosen source into the nucleus of a fertilized mouse egg. At times, the foreign DNA will be integrated successfully into the chromosomes of the mouse-egg nucleus. The eggs are then transferred to a foster female mouse.
How long do transgenic mice live?
In contrast, transgenic mice heterozygous for a mutated gene generally have been underutilized, and one often sees the comment that the heterozygous transgenic mice are “normal,” which in reality means that the mice live to adulthood (6 to 8 months of age) and are fertile, producing viable offspring.
How does a backcross work?
Backcross, the mating of a hybrid organism (offspring of genetically unlike parents) with one of its parents or with an organism genetically similar to the parent. The backcross is useful in genetics studies for isolating (separating out) certain characteristics in a related group of animals or plants.
What is crop Ideotype?
Crop ideotype refers to model plant or ideal plant type for a specific environment. Ideal plants are expected to give higher yield than old cultivars. Ideotype is a moving goal which changes according to climatic situations, type of cultivation, market requirement etc.
How does backcross differ from Testcross?
A heterozygous genotype has a dominant and a recessive allele. Whereas a homozygous genotype can have either both dominant or both recessive alleles.
Differentiate between back cross and test cross.
|Test cross||Back cross|
|All test crosses are backcrosses.||A backcross can be said as a test cross if the parent is recessive.|
Can one year old mice breed?
Age 1) Mice will usually not breed if they are younger than 4 weeks of age. 2) Younger mice produce smaller litters and therefore are not typically bred until 6-8 weeks.
Can you keep two pregnant mice together?
The mice can be left together until the pups are ready to be weaned if the cage doesn't get too crowded. For many strains, two pregnant females and their litters can be housed together until weaning, although you may find that particularly fecund strains like CD1 require that the cage be split to avoid overcrowding.
How long are mice fertile for?
They have a gestating period of 19 to 21 days. A female mouse gets pregnant about 5 to 10 times each year and can give birth to a litter of 3 to 14 pups. On average, the litter size ranges from 6 to 8 pups. On average, you are looking at least 32 to 56 pups each year from one female mouse.
What is the meaning syngeneic?
(SIN-jeh-NAY-ik) Having to do with individuals or tissues that have identical genes. For example, identical twins and cells and tissues from them are syngeneic.
How many chromosomes does a mouse have?
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, while rats have 21 and mice have 20.
What is a CD45 2 mice?
Description. CD45. 2 is an alloantigen of CD45, expressed by Ly5. 2 bearing mouse strains (e.g., A, AKR, BALB/c, CBA/Ca, CBA/J, C3H/He, C57BL, C57BR, C57L, C58, DBA/1, DBA/2, NZB, SWR, 129).
What is the importance of using congenic markers in this experiment?
What is the importance of using congenic markers in this experiment? B. To determine if protein X really is a good surface marker for HSCs, whole bone marrow (BM) should be collected from a mouse with a congenic marker (e.g. Ly5. 2).
What CD45 2?
CD45. 2 (LCA, leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated hematopoietic cells, comprising approximately 10% of all surface proteins in lymphocytes. CD45.
What causes linkage disequilibrium?
If selection favors individuals with particular combinations of alleles, then it produces linkage disequilibrium. Random processes can cause persistent linkage disequilibrium. If random sampling produces by chance an excess of a haplotype in a generation, linkage disequilibrium will have arisen.
What is recombinant inbred lines RILs?
Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) are a collection of strains that can be used to map quantitative trait loci. Parent strains are crossed to create recombinants that are then inbred to isogenicity, resulting in a permanent resource for trait mapping and analysis.
What is homozygous state?
Homozygous describes the genetic condition or the genetic state where an individual has inherited the same DNA sequence for a particular gene from both their biological mother and their biological father. It's often used in the context of disease.
What is a chromosome substitution?
The replacement of one or more chromosomes by others (totally or partially homologous) from another source (either a different strain of the same species or a related species that will permit hybridization) by a suitable crossing programme. From: chromosome substitution in A Dictionary of Zoology »
How are chromosomes strained?
A chromosome substitution strain (CSS) or consomic strain is an inbred strain in which a single chromosome from a donor strain replaces the corresponding chromosome in the host/parental strain on a defined and uniform genetic background.
What is chromosome substitution lines?
Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are genetic stocks representing the complete genome of any genotype in the background of a cultivar as overlapping segments. These are resources for genetic map construction, mapping QTLs, genes or gene interactions and their functional analysis for crop improvement.
Are B6 mice CD45 2?
2 B6 strain is the CD45 isoform. Journal Article: Jang et al., 2018. Cutting Edge: Check Your Mice−−A Point Mutation in the Ncr1 Locus Identified in CD45. 1 Congenic Mice with Consequences in Mouse Susceptibility to Infection.
Is CD45 a phosphatase?
CD45: an emerging role as a protein tyrosine phosphatase required for lymphocyte activation and development. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994;12:85-116.
What does CD45 stain for?
CD45 is a signalling molecule that is an essential regulator of T and B cell antigen receptor signalling. Anti-CD45 is a biomarker for the majority of lymphoid neoplasms and positively stains most nucleated cells of hematopoietic tissue origin.
What does isogenic strain mean?
Isogenic strains (inbred strains and F1 hybrids) are like immortal clones of genetically identical individuals. The same genotype can be reproduced indefinitely. They have already made a substantial contribution to biomedical research.
Does inbreeding affect humans?
Studies have confirmed an increase in several genetic disorders due to inbreeding such as blindness, hearing loss, neonatal diabetes, limb malformations, disorders of sex development, schizophrenia and several others.
What is a founder mouse?
Transgenic mice which have integrated the transgenic construct are known as "founder mice" and each founder mouse can be bred with wild-type mice to establish different "lines" of transgenic mice.
What are transgenic animal models?
Transgenic animals are genetically engineered animals, which allow the functional assessment of specific genes or proteins in health and disease.
What is the difference between transgenic and knockout mice?
Transgenic mice is genetically modified mouse that has its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques, while knockout mouse have inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.